Modern Provençal: Part 2

Regular Verbs

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This is part two in a series on the modern Provençal language. See part one to start at the beginning.

Now that we've been introduced to the language, it's time for some action.

A flock of wild horses swimming across a river.
Wild horses in the Camargue. Source

Table of Contents

  1. Previous article in the series
  2. Next article in the series
  3. All articles in the series
  4. Disclaimer
  5. Regular verbs
    1. Figure: List of Verbs
    2. Group 1: verbs ending in -ar
      1. Stem changes
      2. Direct objects
      3. Indirect objects
      4. Reflexive verbs
      5. False friends
    3. Group 2: verbs ending in -ir
      1. Extended-stem verbs
      2. Single-stem verbs
        1. Stem changes
        2. Tenir and venir
    4. Group 3: verbs ending in -re and -er
      1. Stem changes
    5. To like, to love, and to please

Disclaimer

I am not a native speaker, nor any kind of authority on Provence or the Provençal language. I'm compiling these notes from limited and fragmented resources as a way to teach myself, and while I've made every effort to be as accurate and in-depth as possible, mistakes are bound to happen.

I try to verify and weigh information against multiple sources, but something may ultimately come down to a difference between dialects or individual speakers. If you have any comments or corrections, please contact me, including your source(s) and/or credentials.

For now, consider this a work-in-progress.

Regular verbs

Verbs have a stem and an ending. For example, the verb voler, which we've seen previously, has the stem vol- and the ending -er.

Verbs are divided into three groups based on their ending: the first group are those that end in -ar, the second group are those that end in -ir, and the third group are those that end in either -re or -er.

Most verbs are regular, meaning their endings change in a regular, predictable way. With the exception of voler, the verbs we've seen so far (aver, èstre, far, and anar) have been irregular because their endings change in unique ways.

While the endings are regular, the stems often undergo additional changes which can be more irregular. The best way to learn is through examples and exercises, so don't try to memorize all the tables in this article. They're only meant for reference.

List of verbs and their conjugation in the present tense. Irregular endings are highlighted.
Group Verb English Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
1 abreujar to abbreviate, shorten abrèuge abrèuges abrèuja abreujam abreujatz abrèujan
1 ajudar to help ajude ajudes ajuda ajudam ajudatz ajudan
1 alumar to light (a lamp) alume alumes aluma alumam alumatz aluman
1 amar to love ame ames ama amam amatz aman
1 apelar to call apèle apèles apèla apelam apelatz apèlan
1 arrestar to stop arrèste arrèstes arrèsta arrestam arrestatz arrèstan
1 assajar to try assage assages assaja assajam assajatz assajan
1 atacar to attack ataque ataques ataca atacam atacatz atacan
1 atubar to light (a fire) atube atubes atuba atubam atubatz atuban
1 banhar to bathe banhe banhes banha banham banhatz banhan
1 boscar to search, look for bosque bosques bosca boscam boscatz boscan
1 breçar to cradle brèce brèces brèça breçam breçatz brèçan
1 brocar to knit bròque bròques bròca brocam brocatz bròcan
1 caçar to hunt, chase cace caces caça caçam caçatz caçan
1 cantar to sing cante cantes canta cantam cantatz cantan
1 cercar to search for cèrque cèrques cèrca cercam cercatz cèrcan
1 chuchotejar to whisper chuchotege chuchoteges chuchoteja chuchotejam chuchotejatz chuchotejan
1 començar to begin comence comences comença començam començatz començan
1 conjugar to conjugate conjugue conjugues conjuga conjugam conjugatz conjugan
1 cosinar to cook cosine cosines cosina cosinam cosinatz cosinan
1 dançar to dance dance dances dança dançam dançatz dançan
1 demandar to ask demande demandes demanda demandam demandatz demandan
1 donar to give done dones dona donam donatz donan
1 esperar to hope, wait espère espères espèra esperam esperatz espèran
1 explicar to explain explique expliques explica explicam explicatz explican
1 manjar to eat mange manges manja manjam manjatz manjan
1 negar to deny, drown nègue nègues nèga negam negatz nègan
1 passejar to walk passege passeges passeja passejam passejatz passejan
1 pausar to ask, lie down pause pauses pausa pausam pausatz pausan
1 pecar to sin pèque pèques pèca pecam pecatz pècan
1 peçugar to pinch peçugue peçugues peçuga peçugam peçugatz peçugan
1 pensar to think pense penses pensa pensam pensatz pensan
1 pregar to pray prègue prègues prèga pregam pregatz prègan
1 remerciar to thank remèrcie remèrcies remèrcia remerciam remerciatz remèrcian
1 restar to stay rèste rèstes rèsta restam restatz rèstan
1 tricotar to knit tricòte tricòtes tricòta tricotam tricotatz tricòtan
2 agrandir to grow, enlarge agrandisse agrandisses agrandís agrandissèm agrandissètz agrandisson
2 bastir to build bastisse bastisses bastís bastissèm bastissètz bastisson
2 chausir to choose chausisse chausisses chausís chausissèm chausissètz chausisson
2 constituïr to constitute constituïsse constituïsses constituís constituïssèm constituïssètz constituïsson
2 decidir to decide decidisse decidisses decidís decidissèm decidissètz decidisson
2 finir to finish finisse finisses finís finissèm finissètz finisson
2 fugir to flee fugisse fugisses fugís fugissèm fugissètz fugisson
2 joïr to enjoy joïsse joïsses joís joïssèm joïssètz joïsson
2 legir to read legisse legisses legís legissèm legissètz legisson
2 obeïr to obey obeïsse obeïsses obeís obeïssèm obeïssètz obeïsson
2 ofrir to offer ofrisse ofrisses ofrís ofrissèm ofrissètz ofrisson
2 seguir to follow seguisse seguisses seguís seguissèm seguissètz seguisson
2 aquerir to acquire aquière aquières aquièr aquerèm aquerètz aquièron
2 assalhir to attack, assail assalhe assalhes assalhe assalhèm assalhètz assalhon
2 ausir to hear ause auses ause ausèm ausètz auson
2 bolhir to boil bolhe bolhes bolh bolhèm bolhètz bolhon
2 contenir to contain contène contènes contèn contenèm contenètz contènon
2 culhir to gather cuelhe cuelhes cuelh culhèm culhètz cuelhon
2 curbir to cover cuerbe cuerbes cuerp curbèm curbètz cuerbon
2 descurbir to discover descuerbe descuerbes descuerp descurbèm descurbètz descuerbon
2 dormir to sleep dòrme dòrmes dòrm dormèm dormètz dòrmon
2 durbir to open duerbe duerbes duerp durbèm durbètz duerbon
2 mantenir to maintain mantène mantènes mantèn mantenèm mantenètz mantènon
2 morir to die mòre mòres mòr morèm morètz mòron
2 obtenir to obtain obtène obtènes obtèn obtenèm obtenètz obtènon
2 pervenir to succeed at pervène pervènes pervèn pervenèm pervenètz pervènon
2 prevenir to warn, prevent prevène prevènes prevèn prevenèm prevenètz prevènon
2 prusir to itch pruse pruses prutz prusèm prusètz pruson
2 sentir to feel sente sentes sent sentèm sentètz senton
2 servir to serve sèrve sèrves sèrv servèm servètz sèrvon
2 sortir to leave sòrte sòrtes sòrt sortèm sortètz sòrton
2 tenir to take tène tènes tèn tenèm tenètz tènon
2 venir to come vène vènes vèn venèm venètz vènon
3 aprendre to learn aprene aprenes apren aprenèm aprenètz aprenon
3 batre to beat bate bates bat batèm batètz baton
3 beure to drink beve beves beu bevèm bevètz bevon
3 concebre to conceive concebe concebes conceup concebèm concebètz concebon
3 conclure to concluse concluses conclutz conclusèm conclusètz concluson
3 còntradire to contradict còntradise còntradises còntraditz còntradisèm còntradisètz còntradison
3 correspòndre to correspond correspònde correspòndes correspònd correspondèm correspondètz correspòndon
3 crèire to think, believe crese creses cretz cresèm cresètz creson
3 decebre to deceive decebe decebes deceup decebèm decebètz decebon
3 defendre to defend defende defendes defend defendèm defendètz defendon
3 deure to have to deve deves deu devèm devètz devon
3 dire to say dise dises ditz disèm disètz dison
3 dissòuvre to dissolve dissòuve dissòuves dissòuv dissouvèm dissouvètz dissòuvon
3 escondre to hide esconde escondes escond escondèm escondètz escondon
3 escriure to write escrive escrives escriu escrivèm escrivètz escrivon
3 exclure to exclude excluse excluses exclutz exclusèm exclusètz excluson
3 recebre to receive recebe recebes receup recebèm recebètz recebon
3 rire to laugh rise rises ritz risèm risètz rison
3 veire to see vese veses vetz vesèm vesètz veson
3 ajónher to reach ajonhe ajonhes ajonh ajonhèm ajonhètz ajonhon
3 aparéisser to appear apareisse apareisses apareis apareissèm apareissètz apareisson
3 conóisser to know, be familiar with conoisse conoisses conois conoissèm conoissètz conoisson
3 convéncer to convince convence convences convenç convencèm convencètz convençon
3 córrer to run corre corres cor corrèm corrètz corron
3 empénher to push empenhe empenhes empenh empenhèm empenhètz empenhon
3 fénher to feign, pretend fenhe fenhes fenh fenhèm fenhètz fenhon
3 jónher to join jonhe jonhes jonh jonhèm jonhètz jonhon
3 nàisser to be born naisse naisses nais naissèm naissètz naisson
3 pàisser to graze paisse paisses pais paissèm paissètz paisson
3 plànher to regret planhe planhes planh planhèm planhètz planhon
3 poder to be able pòde pòdes pòu podèm podètz pòdon
3 reconóisser to recognize reconoisse reconoisses reconois reconoissèm reconoissètz reconoisson
3 restrénher to restrain restrenhe restrenhes restrenh restrenhèm restrenhètz restrenhon
3 saber to know sabe sabes saup sabèm sabètz sabon
3 tèisser to weave tèisse tèisses tèis teissèm teissètz tèisson
3 ténher to dye tenhe tenhes tenh tenhèm tenhètz tenhon
3 tòrcer to twist tòrce tòrces tòrç torcèm torcètz tòrçon

Group 1: verbs ending in -ar

The first group of verbs are those ending in -ar.

Provençal is descended from Old Occitan, the language of the trobadors and trobairitz. It is a language made for singing, so what better way to start than by looking at the verb cantar ("to sing"):

Conjugation of the verb cantar ("to sing") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
cante cantes canta cantam cantatz cantan
I sing you sing he/she/it sings we sing you sing they sing

The verb cantar consists of the stem cant- and the ending -ar. Look at how the ending changes: all the regular verbs ending in -ar follow this pattern.

Conjugation of verbs ending in -ar in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
-e -es -a -am -atz -an

Examples of other regular verbs of this type include: amar ("to love", used of people), pensar ("to think"), ajudar ("to help"), donar ("to give"), cosinar ("to cook"), and trabalhar ("to work").

Cantam una cançon de Provença.
We sing a song about Provençe.
Ames Marià?
Do you love Maria?
Pense d'anar deman.
I am thinking of going tomorrow.
Ajudan leis enfants.
They help the childen.
Dona una pera a Jacòb.
He/she gives a pear to Jacob.
Cosinatz de pastas?
Are you cooking pasta?
Trabalhan?
Are they working?

Stem-changes

Alternating ç/c

When the stem of an -ar verb ends in a ç, that ç changes to a regular c in the first- and second-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb dançar ("to dance") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
dance dances dança dançam dançatz dançan
I dance you dance he/she/it dances we dance you dance they dance
Alternating c/qu

When the stem of an -ar verb ends in a c, that c changes to qu in the first- and second-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb explicar ("to explain") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
explique expliques explica explicam explicatz explican
I explain you explain he/she/it explains we explain you explain they explain
Alternating j/g

When the stem of an -ar verb ends in j, that j changes to g in the first- and second-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb manjar ("to eat") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
mange manges manja manjam manjatz manjan
I eat you eat he/she/it eats we eat you eat they eat
Alternating g/gu

When the stem of an -ar verb ends in a g, that g changes to gu in the first- and second-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb conjugar ("to conjugate") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
conjugue conjugues conjuga conjugam conjugatz conjugan
I conjugate you conjugate he/she/it conjugates we conjugate you conjugate they conjugate
Alternating e/è and o/ò

Finally, some verbs whose stems contain an e or an o will add a grave accent (becoming è and ò) in the singular as well as the third-person plural:

Conjugation of the verb esperar ("to hope") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
espère espères espèra esperam esperatz espèran
I hope you hope he/she/it hopes we hope you hope they hope
Conjugation of the verb brocar ("to knit") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
bròque bròques bròca brocam brocatz bròcan
I knit you knit he/she/it knits we knit you knit they knit

Direct objects

In the sentence La princessa manja la poma ("The princess eats the apple"), la princessa is the subject and la poma is the direct object.

Instead of "the apple" we could say "it": "the princess eats it". In Provençal, the direct object comes before the verb in such cases: La princessa la manja.

The accussative (direct object) personal pronouns
Before a ... Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Masculine Feminine
Consonant me te lo la nos vos lei
Vowel m' t' l' leis

In the examples below, the direct objects have been highlighted.

La princessa ama lo prince
La princessa l'ama
The princess loves the prince
The princess loves him
Cosinam lo polet
Lo cosinam
We cook the chicken
We cook it
Nos ajudatz
You help us.
Bròque lei camisas
Lei bròque
I knit the shirts.
I knit them.

Indirect objects

In the sentence La masca dona la poma a la princessa ("The witch gives the apple to the princess" or "The witch gives the princess the apple"), la masca is the subject, la poma is the direct object, and la princessa is the indirect object.

The dative (indirect object) personal pronouns
Before a ... Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Consonant me te li nos vos li
Vowel m' t'

Instead of "the princess", we could say "her": "The witch gives the apple to her" or "The witch gives her the apple". Same as with the direct object, in Provençal the pronoun comes before the verb: La masca li dona la poma (Literally: "the witch her gives the apple").

We can even replace both the direct and the indirect object: La masca la li dona ("The witch gives it to her", literally: "The witch it her gives").

In Provençal, we might say M'agrada la musica ("I like music" or "I like the music"). This is a tricky sentence because the verb agradar doesn't literally mean "to like" and the subject of the sentence isn't "I" like it is in English. The subject is in fact la musica, which explains why it's conjugated in the third person singular (m'agrada not m'agrade), and agradar more accurately means "to please" or "to be pleasing to". Think of it as "Music is pleasing to me" or "The music is pleasing to me."

When the indirect object is third-person singular, we have to add a preposition (a) and the dative pronoun li, so instead of La dròlla agrada la musica we say A la dròlla li agrada la musica ("The girl likes music"). Here again la musica is the subject and both li and la dròlla are the indirect object. "To the girl the music is pleasing to her" may sound a bit off in English, but that's just how it is in Provençal.

Reflexive verbs

When the subject and direct object of a verb are the same, the verb is called reflexive, as in the sentences m'ajude ("I help myself"), nos ajudam ("we help ourselves" or "we help each other"), s'ajuda ("he/she/it helps him/her/itself").

The reflexive personal pronouns
Before a ... Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Consonant me te se nos vos se
Vowel m' t' s' s'

Some verbs are reflexive in Provençal that are not typically reflexive in English, for example pausar ("to lie down") and banhar ("to bathe").

L'òme se pausa sus lo sòu
The man lies down on the ground
Me pause sus lo liech
I lie down on the bed
Nos banham dins lo fluvi
We bathe in the river
Se banhan dins la ribiera
They bathe in the river

Side note: the words fluvi (masculine) and ribiera (feminine) both mean "river". Fluvi refers to a river that flows into the sea while ribiera refers to a river that flows into another river.

False friends

Many Provençal words may seem familiar: prince and princessa for example. This can be convenient, but it can also turn out to be a trap.

The verbs demandar and pausar are so-called "false friends". They seem familiar to an English speaker, who may be led to believe that they mean "to demand" and "to pause". In fact, they both mean "to ask" (pausar can also mean "to lie down" as we saw above under reflexive verbs, but there is no verb "to pause" in Provençal, instead you have to say far la pausa).

Demandes pas mielhs
You don't ask for much
Me demande se s'aman
I ask myself if they love each other
I wonder if they love each other
Li pausan una question
They ask him/her a question
They pose him/her a question
Fasèm la pausa
We pause
We take a break

Careful not to let yourself be tricked by false friends.

Group 2: verbs ending in -ir

The second group of verbs are those ending in -ir, which are further divided into extended-stem verbs and single-stem verbs.

Conjugation of verbs ending in -ir in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
-e -es - -èm -ètz -on

Extended-stem verbs

Most verbs ending in -ir receive an extended stem -iss- (-ís- in third-person singular).

Examples include: legir ("to read"), finir ("to finish"), chausir ("to choose"), bastir ("to build"), decidir ("to decide"), fugir ("to flee"), and seguir ("to follow").

Conjugation of the verb legir ("to read") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
legisse legisses legís legissèm legissètz legisson
I read you read he/she/it reads we read you read they read

Pay attention to verbs such as obeïr ("to obey"), joïr ("to enjoy"), and constituïr ("to constitute"), which end in a vowel + -ïr instead of -ir. The two dots above the i are called a tréma, and it just means that the i and the vowel before it should be pronounced separately, not as a diphthong (the i should be pronounced [i] not [j]). It carries over to the extended stem, except in third-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb obeïr ("to obey") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
obeïsse obeïsses obeís obeïssèm obeïssètz obeïsson
I obey you obey he/she/it obeys we obey you obey they obey

Single-stem verbs

Some verbs ending in -ir do not receive this extended stem. Examples include sentir ("to feel"), ausir ("to hear"), and bolhir ("to boil"):

Conjugation of the verb sentir ("to feel") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
sente sentes sent sentèm sentètz senton
I feel you feel he/she/it feels we feel you feel they feel
Stem changes
Alternating o/ò and e/è

Verbs like morir ("to die"), dormir ("to sleep"), sortir ("to leave"), and servir ("to serve") change o to ò and e to è in the singular and in the third-person plural:

Conjugation of the verb sortir ("to leave") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
sòrte sòrtes sòrt sortèm sortètz sòrton
I leave you leave he/she/it leaves we leave you leave they leave
Conjugation of the verb servir ("to serve") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
sèrve sèrves sèrv servèm servètz sèrvon
I serve you serve he/she/it serves we serve you serve they serve
Alternating e/iè

Verbs like aquerir ("to acquire") change e to in the singular and in the third-person plural:

Conjugation of the verb aquerir ("to acquire") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
aquière aquières aquièr aquerèm aquerètz aquièron
I acquire you acquire he/she/it acquires we acquire you acquire they acquire
Alternating u/ue and -b/-p

Verbs like culhir ("to gather"), durbir ("to open"), curbir ("to cover"), and descurbir ("to discover") change u to ue in the singular and in the third-person plural. Notice also the change to p in the third-person singular when the stem ends in -b:

Conjugation of the verb durbir ("to open") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
duerbe duerbes duerp durbèm durbètz duerbon
I open you open he/she/it opens we open you open they open
Alternating -s/-tz

Verbs like prusir ("to itch") change the final s to tz in the third-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb prusir ("to itch") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
pruse pruses prutz prusèm prusètz pruson
I itch you itch he/she/it itches we itch you itch they itch
Tenir and venir

The verbs tenir ("to take" or "to hold") and venir ("to come"), as well as all other verbs ending in -tenir and -venir such as obtenir ("to obtain") and prevenir ("to warn"), are e/è-alternating single-stemmed -ir verbs in the present tense, but we'll see later that there are some irregularities in other tenses.

Group 3: verbs ending in -re and -er

The third group of verbs are those ending in -re or -er. In the present tense, these verbs change ending exactly like -ir verbs:

Conjugation of the verb batre ("to beat") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
bate bates bat batèm batètz baton
I beat you beat he/she/it beats we beat you beat they beat

Stem changes

The verbs in the third group are the most irregular when it comes to stem changes.

Alternating b/up

When the stem of a -re or -er verb ends in b, such as the verbs recebre ("to receive"), concebre ("to conceive"), decebre ("to deceive"), and saber ("to know"), the b changes to up in the third-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb recebre ("to receive") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
recebe recebes receup recebèm recebètz recebon
I receive you receive he/she/it receives we receive you receive they receive
Conjugation of the verb saber ("to know") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
sabe sabes saup sabèm sabètz sabon
I know you know he/she/it knows we know you know they know
Alternating c/ç

When the stem of an -er verb ends in -c, as in the verbs tòrcer ("to twist") and convéncer ("to convince"), that c becomes ç in the third-person singular and plural.

Conjugation of the verb tòrcer ("to twist") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
tòrce tòrces tòrç torcèm torcètz tòrçon
I twist you twist he/she/it twists we twist you twist they twist
Alternating u/v

When the stem of a -re verb ends in a vowel + u, such as the verbs beure ("to drink"), deure ("to have to"), and escriure ("to write"), the u changes to v except in the third-person singular:

Conjugation of the verb beure ("to drink") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
beve beves beu bevèm bevètz bevon
I drink you drink he/she/it drinks we drink you drink they drink
Conjugation of the verb escriure ("to write") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
escrive escrives escriu escrivèm escrivètz escrivon
I write you write he/she/it writes we write you write they write
Alternating i/s/tz

When the stem of a -re verb ends in a vowel + i, such as the verb veire ("to see"), the i changes to s, except in the third-person singular where it becomes tz:

Conjugation of the verb veire ("to see") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
vese veses vetz vesèm vesètz veson
I see you see he/she/it sees we see you see they see
Alternating i/u/s/tz

When the stem of a -re verb ends in a consonant + -u or consonant + -i, such as exclure ("exclude"), conclure ("conclude"), dire ("to say"), and rire ("to laugh"), the stem gains an -s (-tz in the third-person singular):

Conjugation of the verb exclure ("to exclude") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
excluse excluses exclutz exclusèm exclusètz excluson
I exclude you exclude he/she/it excludes we exclude you exclude they exclude
Conjugation of the verb dire ("to say") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
dise dises ditz disèm disètz dison
I say you say he/she/it says we say you say they say
Dropping accents

Most -er verbs lose all accents in their stems, but a few (see later) only lose accents in the first- and second-person plural.

Conjugation of the verb ténher ("to dye") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
tenhe tenhes tenh tenhèm tenhètz tenhon
I dye you dye he/she/it dyes we dye you dye they dye

Verbs ending in -re may lose the accents in their stems completely, partially, or not at all. For example, the verb crèire ("to think", "to believe") loses the accent completely in the present tense:

Conjugation of the verb crèire ("to think", to "believe") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
crese creses cretz cresèm cresètz creson
I think you think he/she/it thinks we think you think they think

The verbs correspòndre ("to correspond") and dissòuvre ("to dissolve") lose the accent in the first- and second-person plural:

Conjugation of the verb dissòuvre ("to dissolve") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
dissòuve dissòuves dissòuv dissouvèm dissouvètz dissòuvon
I dissolve you dissolve he/she/it dissolves we dissolve you dissolve they dissolve

Meanwhile, the verb còntradire ("to contradict") does not lose its accent at all.

Conjugation of the verb còntradire ("to contradict") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
còntradise còntradises còntraditz còntradisèm còntradisètz còntradison
I contradict you contradict he/she/it contradicts we contradict you contradict they contradict
Alternating -ss/-s and -rr/-r

When an -er verb ends in -ss or -rr, such as the verbs tèisser ("to weave") and córrer ("to run"), the double consonant becomes a single consonant in the third person singular. Notice also how some verbs, like tèisser in this case, loses its accent only in the first- and second-person plural.

Conjugation of the verb tèisser ("to weave") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
tèisse tèisses tèis teissèm teissètz tèisson
I weave you weave he/she/it weaves we weave you weave they weave
Conjugation of the verb córrer ("to run") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
corre corres cor corrèm corrètz corron
I run you run he/she/it runs we run you run they run
Prendre

The verb prendre ("to take"), as well as any verbs ending in -prendre such as aprendre ("to learn"), drop the d from the stem:

Conjugation of the verb prendre ("to take") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
prene prenes pren prenèm prenètz prenon
I take you take he/she/it takes we take you take they take
Poder and voler

The verbs poder ("to be able to") and voler ("to want") gain an accent and change the final consonant of the stem to u in the third-person singular.

Conjugation of the verb poder ("to be able to") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
pòde pòdes pòu podèm podètz pòdon
I can you can he/she/it can we can you can they can
Conjugation of the verb voler ("to want") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
vòle vòles vòu volèm volètz vòlon
I want you want he/she/it wants we want you want they want

To like, to love, and to please

We've seen that voler ben can be used to express fondness for a person, to say that someone likes someone else in a non-romantic way.

Volètz ben lo professor novèu?
Do you like the new teacher?

We've also seen that amar can be used to say that someone loves someone else, in a romantic way.

Lo prince e la princessa s'aman
The prince and the princess love each other

And we've seen that agradar can be used to say that someone likes something, when talking about things instead of people.

A la princessa li agradan lei pomas
The princess likes apples
A l'emperaire li agradan lei vèstits novèus
The emperor likes the new clothes

But agradar can also be used of people, to say that someone loves someone else, just like amar. The difference is that amar is stronger, while agradar is used for loves that are platonic or less intense in some way.

A la vièlha li agrada sa sòrre
The old woman loves her sister

If that's not enough for you, there's another word: plaire ("to please") is used much like agradar to express fondness for things or people.

Conjugation of the verb plaire ("to please") in the present tense.
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
plase plases platz plasèm plasètz plason
I please you please he/she/it pleases we please you please they please
Lei cauçaduras rojas me plason
I like the red shoes
Lo capèu vièlh te platz?
Do you like the old hat?
Vos plasèm
We like you

It is also used to say "please": Se vos platz (literally "if it pleases you")